Automotive production in older ages required a various types of systems to convert energy. The conversion of energy is done by means of various methods such as solar, rotary, turbine, electric, steam and also by means of different types of pistons used in combustion engines. For automobiles the engines consisting of the piston-reciprocating internal-combustion system which operates on a four-stroke or four-cycle has been the most successful one, where the diesel engines are widely used for the trucks and buses.
The gasoline engine was the one which is originally selected for automobile industry due to its various advantages such as flexibility in various speed ranges, the power developed by these engines are good, The cost of production of these engines are very less, this type of engine is readily available, cost of the fuel is very low, they are reliable and compact in size. Even though they have number of features the operation of the engines is the most important aspect in selecting engines.
At present the pollution level is increased in the world due to the combustion of fuels by the automotive engines. This reason has created an wide interest in developing various types of alternative power sources. An new model of battery operated electric vehicles has been developed in recent times but they are only in limited production. But this electric vehicle has not proved to be competitive in case of owing cost and operating characteristics and maintenance.
The trend for increasing the horsepower of the engines has become more common in the first half of the 20th century, it is seen more commonly in case of certain American models. The Design changes have incorporated various types of methods for raising engine capacity. This includes in increasing the pressure of the cylinders and also to improve its efficiency, increasing the engine size, and then there involves increase in speed where power is generated. This certain changes in engines increase forces and pressures which in turn resulted in certain problems such as vibration etc.
Smaller cars where brought into the market which consist of smaller engines, these engines consist of four and six-cylinder design they produce very low horse power rating of about 80. when compared with standard sized V-8, which is made of large cylinder bore and relatively very short piston will produce an intended horse power from 250 to 350 ranges.
The automobile engines made in Europe have bigger ranges, depending upon the size of the engines, bores of the cylinder, displacement of pistons; the cylinders may vary from 1 to 12. Majority of models consist of four cylinders and the horsepower ratings varies from 19 to 120.The smaller sized engines are commonly air cooled type and thus it is the reason for locating the engines at the rear of the vehicle; they also used in order to reduce the compression ratios. Thus in 1970’s and 1980’s an increased interest in improving fuel efficiency of the engines led to evolution smaller type of v-6 engines.